Emdrive can be understood in two ways

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    • Emdrive can be understood in two ways

      Understanding mode I David Kipping, an astronomer at Columbia University, published a paper proposing that spacecraft designed with light sails can theoretically use black holes to achieve a speed close to the speed of light. In this paper, Kipping uses a double black hole system model to realize the advanced acceleration and deceleration of spacecraft with the help of kinetic energy transfer based on light Sail Technology in the double black hole system. The principle is shown in the figure above. The photon emitted by the laser emitter is accelerated by the gravitational field of the moving black hole in the two hole system. Specifically, because photons have measurable static mass, we can launch photons towards the predetermined orbit near the black hole, so that photons can accelerate around the orbit "for one week" by the gravitational field of the black hole, and then hit the "light sail" of the spacecraft, so that the spacecraft can obtain a photon acceleration effect much more powerful than the laser emitter, High efficiency and large acceleration and deceleration can be realized by using the double hole system.
      [Blocked Image: https://pic2.zhimg.com/80/v2-b30b257d5d3910fce8fcc60a19dfa10d_1440w.jpg] The effect of this process is that the relative position of the black hole and the laser source has changed. This system can also be used to explain the principle of emdrive. When the laser is replaced by microwave, the effect of accelerating photons is replaced by weakening the intensity of microwave. After replacing with microwave, the effect is that the gap between the particles of the whole set of emdrive (including microwave source) becomes larger, that is, thermal expansion, and a microwave source emits a force in the opposite direction (the force cannot be measured in other directions). Understanding mode 2 [Blocked Image: https://pic4.zhimg.com/80/v2-5d9e5a197d59f3bde8431c381874f2ff_1440w.jpg]According to the principle of light sail, photons have a certain mass, momentum and speed. Light can produce weak thrust on matter and low light. Typical band transition, photons have the effect of acceleration and deceleration, making the light sail move. Light sail can be verified by a large number of engineering examples. What's enough to explain emdrive? According to NASA's paper, it is considered that the thrust actually measured by emdrive is at least two orders of magnitude greater than the microwave light pressure. But will this emdrive be a light pressure amplifier? How does emdrive amplify the thrust? [Blocked Image: https://pic3.zhimg.com/80/v2-20e4a6d4e787f9396cec5306647ff356_1440w.jpg] As shown above, in particles (electrons, ions, or lattices?) In the microwave field, particles can obtain energy and radiate energy, and the radiated energy and momentum are directly stored in the cavity of emdrive. Because of the asymmetric effect, it works externally and obtains thrust. Practice leads to truth, and all our assumptions and inferences can be tested and analyzed with experiments. Based on understanding method 1, we can design a larger cavity and install the cavity in a huge pool. There are dozens of tons of water in the pool, which emits microwaves in the direction of gravity. By increasing the particle space of water in the pool, the forward thrust is obtained. If the microwave emission direction is changed, the thrust direction can be changed. It shows that this explanation is true. The understanding of mode 1 is summarized in one sentence: Microwave steering produces external thrust. Based on the understanding of mode 2, according to the distribution of electromagnetic field generated by the cavity, holes shall be opened at the appropriate position of the cavity to prevent the cavity from being in the pool or water vapor, and glass or plastic shields shall be added inside the cavity to prevent water molecules outside the cavity from entering. Through more reasonable electromagnetic field distribution, the ability of microwave directional order to do work on particles can be expanded. Increase the external thrust. The second understanding is summarized in one sentence: the selective directional acceleration and deceleration of particles in the microwave field generates external thrust. In the phenomena of nuclear fusion, nuclear fission and annihilation of positive and negative particles, the movement of matter is produced. Most of the material laws of transmitting motion have been well known, and it is impossible to realize without working fluid engine in current people's cognition. Then whether it can be separated from the macro entity of particles and transfer this source of motion (i.e. material motion caused by nuclear fusion, fission and annihilation of positive and negative particles). If it can be explained, can it be considered that non working medium propulsion is only the motion generated by motion sources such as nuclear fusion, nuclear fission and annihilation of positive and negative particles to achieve macro entities, and can realize controllable motion in space without particle separation like chemical rocket and electric propulsion? In the current cognition, it is considered impossible if it is separated from the source of material transmission movement. It may be that microwave, thermal radiation and light are also substances. The use of the law of conservation of energy needs to be considered. Time division should be considered for thermal radiation, microwave and systematic energy conservation. Emdrive may meet the conservation of momentum after considering microwave, thermal radiation and other factors, forward and backward of time.
    • As for Roger shawyer's emdrive, over the years, the electromagnetic engine emdrive really has thrust, but the principle can't be explained, and it can't improve the thrust through reliable and reliable principles, let alone quantitatively control the thrust. In fact, it can be explained in a very simple way, which conforms to Newton's law. Just as refrigerators and air conditioners seem to violate the second law of thermodynamics, they actually abide by it, but people's understanding of the law is not in place. The working principle of electromagnetic engine is as simple and understandable as that of refrigerator and air conditioner. Emdrive is only a kind of light-year engine, and light sail is also a kind of light-year engine. Before explaining the principle of drive, we introduce a "spirit monster" in the physical world In 1871, he designed an imaginary existence, the famous Maxwell's demon, in the last chapter of the book thermal theory, the limitation of the second law of thermodynamics. In Maxwell's construction, Maxwell Demon has extremely high intelligence, which can track the whereabouts of each molecule and distinguish their respective speeds. The ideal experiment is as follows: "We know that the velocity of molecules in an air filled container with uniform temperature is never uniform, but the average velocity of any large number of molecules arbitrarily selected is almost completely uniform. Now let's suppose that such a container is divided into two parts, a and B. there is a small hole at the boundary. Imagine an existence that can see a single molecule. Open or close the small hole so that only fast molecules run from a to B and slow molecules run from B to a. In this way, without consuming work, the temperature of B increases and the temperature of a decreases, which contradicts the second law of thermodynamics. This being is the "Maxwell Demon". The goblin controls and controls the molecular channel between the high-temperature system and the low-temperature system. It makes use of the statistical distribution of molecular velocity. According to Maxwell's distribution, there are many high-speed molecules even in the low-temperature area, and there are also low-speed molecules in the high-temperature system. Through such a goblin that can control the movement of molecules, a door is set in the middle of the two systems, which only allows fast molecules to move from low temperature to high temperature, and slow molecules to move from high temperature to low temperature. Under the management mode of "goblin", The temperature difference between the two sides will gradually increase, the temperature in the high-temperature area will be higher and higher, and the temperature in the low-temperature area will be lower and lower. Because if Maxwell's demon really exists, we may create a second kind of perpetual motion machine that violates the second law of thermodynamics. Maxwell Demon is most appropriate to explain drive. A more appropriate metaphor is that heat cannot be spontaneously transmitted from low-temperature objects to high-temperature objects, but the refrigerator can. Did the refrigerator violate the physical conclusion? No, it's just a "refrigerator" in another physical phenomenon. Next, with the help of the spirit of Maxwell Demon, explain why drive conforms to all the laws of physics. According to the papers found on the Internet, as an engineering technician with a bachelor's degree majoring in electrical engineering, I see that all theories are correct, whether it is Roger shawyer's original invention principle description, Professor Yang Juan's experimental paper, NASA's experimental summary and various descriptions on the network. They all use complete theories to discuss this matter. The biggest mistake they made was that they did not limit the formula derivation to engineering examples. Therefore, it comes to an exaggerated conclusion, which leads to a wrong conclusion. Just like putting the refrigeration range of refrigerator air conditioner - 20 ℃ to 100 ℃ to absolute zero and the temperature of nuclear fusion center, it is not only unable to get a good refrigerator air conditioner, but also makes people feel that refrigerator air conditioner violates the physical law. An impossible perpetual motion machine. The reasonable explanation of drive is that in the technology of Maxwell Demon, a magnetic field, electric field, changing electromagnetic field, energy potential field (such as gravity field) or other non-material forces that can act on high and low-speed particles (this is the case under the condition of no working medium propulsion). An external substance can also be added to act on high and low speed particles (such as chemical energy plus particle drive, i.e. chemical rocket). In the non working medium propulsion, the engine that uses this principle is defined here as ly engine (Lightyear drive). At this point, you may understand that the principle of drive like is to form a very stable and orderly energy potential field in the cavity by constantly turning back the microwave, and this energy potential field is always in the same direction relative to the cavity particles. When the particles in the cavity are screened by this ordered energy potential field. The particles in the cavity will be steadily accelerated or decelerated in one direction. So as to achieve the propulsion without working medium. In the drive, the conservation of momentum has always been questioned. They believe that momentum is not conserved in this propulsion process. Their wrong understanding stems from the wrong division of the system. For example, they think that the microwave generator, battery, microwave, waveguide and cavity are a whole. Microwaves, and changing microwaves, cannot be considered as a whole. If the microwave is quantized, the particle is quantized. The conservation of momentum can no longer be discussed in both macro and micro situations( This kind of mistake is only made by non physics majors, and many physics professionals will give more evidence of energy non conservation). There is also a person with rich physical knowledge, such as a professor or a doctor. They will demonstrate whether momentum is conserved through formula derivation. But there are also many mistakes). In order to reduce people's errors in the use of the conclusion of energy conservation and momentum conservation. Here is a very well understood statement. Where did momentum go? Momentum is in the particles in the cavity. The momentum of these particles can be released into outer space through thermal radiation. When the particles in the cavity cool down, they can continue to accelerate and decelerate selectively. So as to achieve the possibility of no working medium propulsion. Of course, if the above description can not explain, it will bring a new dark cloud in the physical world( On April 27, 1900, the famous British physicist William Thomson put forward two dark clouds, the first dark cloud Michelson Morey experiment and the destruction of the "Ether" theory and the second dark cloud, blackbody radiation and the "ultraviolet disaster", which put forward a good problem and opened up two new horizons of relativity and quantum mechanics). The dark cloud brought by the light-year engine without working medium propulsion is, why is momentum conserved? We can not think from the perspective of natural philosophy based on physical knowledge. The annihilation of positive and negative electrons will produce light. How is its momentum conserved? Maybe momentum? Momentum will eventually annihilate in a vacuum, and electron radiation such as light will disperse and disappear? What limits the speed of light? When the principle of air-conditioning refrigerator can not explain the electromagnetic engine and solve the deeper principle of non working medium propulsion, it will bring new physical knowledge. It is only necessary to explain how momentum (or it is the source of the motion of all stars and particles, which cannot be expressed by the momentum of current physics) is generated in phenomena such as nuclear fusion, nuclear fission, annihilation of positive and negative particles, and then annihilated in vacuum. The relativistic formula in this process is not enough to explain clearly? If it can be explained, whether it can transfer the source of motion away from the macro entity of the particle (no suitable word can be found). If it can be explained, can it be considered that non working medium propulsion is only the motion generated by motion sources such as nuclear fusion, nuclear fission and annihilation of positive and negative particles to achieve macro entities, and can realize controllable motion in space without particle separation like chemical rocket and electric propulsion? It is hoped that this refrigerant free propulsion is not a dark cloud, but an interpretable phenomenon.